David Holmgren Bill Mollison and I have been of like mind on the use of species capable of naturalizing.
This view of agricultural weeds within organics was influential in the permaculture concept of ‘pioneer plants’. In particular,
Fast growing leguminous shrubs and trees were recognized for their capacity to build biomass, stabilize and improve soils and ameliorate microclimate for the establishment of long lived ‘food forests’.
In the same way that the organic pioneers recognized the value of herbaceous agricultural weeds, we recognized the value of woody pioneer species, many of which were being identified in the new category of ‘environmental weeds’ considered to be a threat to natural ecosystems. These psycho-social factors, combined with the prevailing view within the biological science community, led to the belief that so called invasive species were a major threat to Australian and global biodiversity. As the concept of indigeneity gained status as a way to evaluate biodiversity, naturalized species were increasingly characterized as invasives, aliens or environmental weeds. This perspective has consolidated as a new scientific orthodoxy that treats naturalized species as forms of biological pollution or a negative measure of biodiversity. Consequently, it is common that sites where naturalized species predominate are treated as having very low biodiversity value even though the total number of species may be very high.
There is collected evidence that confirms the impact of animal introductions, but refutes the idea that plant introductions have coincided with major loss of native species
I see Permaculture as prefiguring a revival of interest in both native and migrant species as valuable resources in the energy descent future. In less intensively managed landscapes the renewed value from naturalized species, e.g. willow for animal fodder, could see more people actively spreading potentially useful species.
The multifunction nature of species selection in Permaculture often means locally indigenous or even Australian native species will not do the job. For example, in many environments, shelterbelt designs may require deciduous species to avoid long winter shadows over crops. Additionally, a need for fire retardant and animal fodder species would lead to well proven exotics, such as elms and oaks, while no Australian species can match these criteria.
Conciliation biology recognizes that many non native species are permanent, that outcomes of native–non native interactions will vary depending on the scale of assessment and the values assigned to the biotic system, and that many non native species will perform positive functions in one or more contexts. Geoff Lawton I think it is necessary to have a more open mind and to have an action oriented towards the treatment of diseases and not symptoms. When someone has a headache, modern medicine says it's because the body is deficient in aspirin. But when we go for a more holistic medical approach we realize that there is an origin to the headache. If we look at these problems with invasive species we see that they are a symptom and that the cause is something else entirely. What we usually have is an open wound that needs to be healed before Nature bleeds to death and native species are unable to intervene because the damage is beyond their ability to repair. This happens everywhere because people everywhere persistently create this damage. The gorse (Giesta) in New Zealand is a classic example. The gorse is a prickly legume native to Europe, but a very dominant invader in New Zealand. Following policies similar to those in Europe, New Zealand farmers fought gorse for years and years without success but now it is understood, as more studies come out on the matter, that gorse can be used as the main pioneer plant to restore New Zealand ecology. Some farmers did nothing to the gorse and used it as pasture for cows and sheep. As the plants fixed nitrogen and organic matter in the soil, a mosaic of wild tobacco began to appear and the birds that eat wild tobacco seeds are birds that spread seeds of forest species, so patches of forest began to appear. These patches of forest reduced the population of wild tobacco and gorse by shading and restored the balance. This happens everywhere, but if the symptom is attacked when it appears and the cause is not analyzed, it will always be present. And this is good news for chemical companies, good news for those who like to declare war on species. Ernst Gotsch
DO EGO-CENTRISMO AO ECO-CENTRISMO.
HV - Ernst vamos plantar a agrofloresta?
EG - Sim...podemos começar.
HV - Qual planta voçê quer plantar primeiro?
EG - Vamos plantar esse chorão da areia por todas partes, ela é bem bonitinha.
HV - Ernst usar essa planta vai trazer muitos problemas para mim.
EG - Não se preocupe, Natureza não precisa passaporte...só o humano inventou passaporte.
Voçê quer trabalhar para a natureza ou para o humano?
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